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Singular and Plural Nouns

Nouns can be Singular or Plural.

Singular Nouns

When you are talking about just one thing or person, use a singular noun.
For example:

a car a pen
a house a bag
a teacher a candy

Plural Nouns

When you are talking about two or more places or things, use plural nouns.

cars pens
houses bags
teachers candies

How to make a Singular noun into Plural

Add ‘s’ to the singular form to make the noun plural

Singular

Plural

pencil pencils
cake cakes
egg eggs
book books
train trains

Nouns that end in ‘s’, ‘sh’, ‘ss’, ‘ch’ & ‘x’ are made into plural by adding ‘es’ to the noun

Singular

Plural

bus buses
dress dresses
glass glasses
fox foxes
box boxes
brush brushes
church churches
match matches

Most Nouns ending in ‘o’ are made into plural by adding ‘es’

Singular

Plural

buffalo buffaloes
potato potatoes
mango mangoes

Some of the Nouns ending in ‘o’ are made into plural by simply adding ‘s’

Singular

Plural

piano pianos
photo photos
ratio ratios

Nouns ending in ‘y’ are made into plural by changing ‘y’ into ‘i’ and adding ‘es’

Singular

Plural

baby babies
army armies
city cities

Several Nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ are made into plural by changing ‘f’ or ‘fe’ into ‘v’ and adding ‘es’

Singular

Plural

thief thieves
calf calves
life lives
knife knives

However there are some exceptions to this. Some Nouns ending in ‘f’ are made into plural by simply adding ‘s’

Singular

Plural

chief chiefs
dwarf dwarfs
proof proofs

Nouns that have a vowel before the ‘y’ are made into plural by simply adding ‘s’ to it

Singular

Plural

monkey monkeys
boy boys
tray trays

The plural form of some nouns is the same as the singular form

Singular

Plural

sheep sheep
deer deer
aircraft aircraft

Some nouns form their plural by changing the inside vowel of the singular

Singular

Plural

man men
woman women
mouse mice
tooth teeth
foot feet
goose geese

Some nouns are used only in the plural

trousers spectacles
jeans scissors
pants binoculars
annals assets

The following plural forms are commonly used in singular

mathematics physics
mechanics politics
news measles
innings billiards

Many nouns taken from foreign languages keep their original plural form

From Latin

Singular

Plural

erratum errata
index indices
radius radii
formula formulae
memorandum memoranda
terminus termini

From Greek

Singular

Plural

axis axes
crisis crises
basis bases
analysis analyses
paranthesis parantheses
hypothesis hypotheses
phenomenon pheneomena
criterion criteria

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